Glossary of Materials
This is a list of the materials used in my creations.  Includes in the
descriptions are recommended care for the material.
Handmade Silver Jewelry Care Suggestions

Sterling Silver Jewelry is easier to care for than you think.  Follow these tips and your  Handcrafted Jewelry pieces
will retain their luster and look new for years to come.
Save yourself lots of trouble and store jewelry away from moisture, heat and light.  A jewelry box is perfect, but a
Ziploc bag stored in a drawer works just as well.  Don’t leave your jewelry in the bathroom; it will tarnish much
more quickly.
Any polish or polish cloth that is for silver will work on your jewelry, but even at our Studio, those never seem to be
handy.  My secret, you ask?  Toothpaste and an old toothbrush.  
Pewter
solid pewter, we have a wide array of items in "antique pewter," which is formed from cast base metal with a pewter-colored
plating. "Pot metal" and "white metal" are terms for tin-based alloys used in low temperature casting of costume jewelry
components. "White metal" castings are usually three-dimensional rather than flat and are often plated. The exact composition of
white metal varies, because each casting foundry and shop uses its own proprietary formula. Stamped findings are typically
Includes any of the numerous silver-gray alloys of tin with various amounts of antimony and copper. While none of our stock is
solid pewter, we have a wide array of items in "antique pewter," which is formed from cast base metal with a pewter-colored
plating. "Pot metal" and "white metal" are terms for tin-based alloys used in low temperature casting of costume jewelry
components. "White metal" castings are usually three-dimensional rather than flat and are often plated. The exact composition of
white metal varies, because each casting foundry and shop uses its own proprietary formula. Stamped findings are typically
made from brass or copper clad steel sheet. Stamped findings may be plated and are usually one sided, often flat or slightly
domed.
Carnelian  
aka Cornelian, Natural Agate, Mecca Stone, Pigeon Blood Agate, Sardoine
Carnelian is an A-grade agate. What a lot of people call "true carnelian" is the fiery red/orange color, and in theory, carnelian is
naturally that color. However, most of that fiery red/orange "true" carnelian is heat-treated in secret, well before it reaches the
gemstone-cutting factory. This apparently has been a secret for thousands of years; each part of the world thought everyone else's
carnelian was naturally red, but they were heating theirs, too. When held against the light, the color-treated carnelian shows its color
in stripes, while natural carnelian shows a cloudy distribution of color. The name carnelian is said to be derived from the Latin word
carnis, meaning "flesh," due to its color.
Ancient Egyptian tombs are full of carnelian jewelry, as they believed the gemstone had great power in the afterlife. According to their
system, carnelian amulets could help ensure the Ka's (the soul's) passage into the next world. Elsewhere in the Middle East,
carnelian represents the Hebrew tribe of Reuben and the apostle Phillip, and in Hebrew literature, carnelian appears as a gemstone
in Aaron's breastplate. Some Muslims call it "the Mecca stone," Islamic doctrine holds that engraving the name of Allah on carnelian
stones boosts courage; some even believed that Allah would grant all the desires of wearers of the stone. The Greeks and Romans
used carnelian in rings and signets. Ancient Greeks and Romans called it sardius and used the gemstone for signet rings, cameos
and intaglios. Tibetans created amulets of silver with generous applications of carnelian, and in India, Hindu astrology names
carnelian as the secondary stone of Scorpios.

Red carnelian has been used for centuries to stop the flow of blood, and many believe the gemstone will stop nosebleeds. It is said
to help heal physical wounds and blood disorders, because of their red color. Yoga enthusiasts say carnelian is excellent for the first
chakra, and the gemstone is thought to bring passion to the wearer. It is recommended for infertility or impotency, and because of its
ability to balance, carnelian is good for family areas of the home (especially a bedroom where more than one child sleeps). Deposits
of this gemstone are found in Brazil, India, Australia, Russia, Madagascar, South Africa, Uruguay and the U.S.A.
description and definition of citrine gemestone Citrine
aka Colorado Topaz, Occidental Topaz, Madeira Topaz, False Topaz, Brazilian Topaz, Citrine Topaz, Gold Topaz, Saxon Topaz,
Jeweler's Topaz
The name citrine comes from the French citron, or "lemon," for its color. Much of the citrine on the market today is actually
heat-treated amethyst.  All it takes is a kiln that can reach a specific temperature and hold it for long enough, and a purple amethyst
will turn to citrine. Natural citrine is not common and occurs in lighter hues than the heat-treated material. Also, heat-treated forms
often can be distinguished from natural citrine by their red tint (a quality of all heat-treated gemstones). Unfortunately, some
unscrupulous dealers have created false names for citrine so unaware buyers think they are buying more valuable topaz. Citrine
does closely resemble topaz, but is durable, slightly softer and has less brilliance. It should be known that most "topaz" labeled with
a prefix name (such as gold topaz and others listed above under "aka") is actually the heat-treated form of Citrine.
Kyanite
aka Blue Talc  
A shimmery stone with unusual properties, kyanite can become the sparkle in a necklace or the spark plug in an engine. This
aluminum silicate is a polymorph with two other minerals, andalusite and sillimanite. A polymorph is a mineral that shares the same
chemistry but a different crystal structure with another, or other, minerals. Kyanite is commonly a deep blue, similar to sapphire, and
for this reason is named from the Greek word kyanos for "dark blue." The stone also appears in green and black, and more rarely,
yellow, white or gray. The color is not always uniform; it can be blotchy or in streaks. The crystals are transparent to translucent, and
are found in long blades or columns. Kyanite forms during regional metamorphism under elevated temperatures and pressures, in
rocks such as gneiss and schist. It is also found in kimberlites — unusual intrusive rocks that contain diamonds. While most
minerals have just one hardness, kyanite has a range of 4.5-6.5; the hardness varies depending on which way the stone is scratched
(because kyanite's  crystals are so long and thin). This gemstone has perfect cleavage lengthwise and good cleavage in a second
direction. Therefore, kyanite is characterized by its blue color, differing hardnesses, perfect cleavage and bladed crystal form. Kyanite
is seldom faceted due to difficulties in cutting and remains an unusual collector's gem.
Blue Kyanite
Blue is the most common and recognized color; it is generally just known as "kyanite." This stone is said to open our minds and
improve optimism while dispelling negativity. Mystics believe the color of the stone will boost meditation
.
Pearl
It's said that if diamonds are a girl's best friend, then pearls must be her favorite sister. This lustrous gemstone is one of the June
birthstones. It acquired its name from the ancient Romans, who wore elongated pearls as ear pendants that they called pirla, a
slang diminutive of pira ("pear"). The pearl is an organic gem grown within oysters and a few other mollusks. It is formed when a
foreign object, like a tiny stone, makes its way into the mollusk's shell. The irritation caused by the foreign particle makes the oyster
form a secretion, called nacre, to cover it. Nacre is the same material that forms the mollusk's shell. When dried, the particle again
irritates the animal, so it begins to secrete again; as thousands of layers of nacre coat the intruder, a pearl is formed. The process
takes anywhere from four months to seven years — the longer the process, the bigger the pearl. A single mollusk can create
dozens of pearls at a time, depending on how many particles enter the shell. "Cultured" pearls are those in which people, rather
than nature, implant the intruding material, and the mollusks are cared for in a protective environment (a pearl farm) while coating
process goes on. Nearly all pearls available today are cultured, and only one out of four cultivated oysters lives to create a
marketable pearl. Natural pearls are very rare (and valuable!), so the word "pearl" should be assumed as "cultured pearl" unless
otherwise noted.
The pearl is said to improve self-worth and help people see themselves. It is an emblem of modesty, chastity and purity, and
symbolizes love, success and happiness. The gemstone also is associated with the ministry, bringing wisdom through experience.
Pearls are purported to help to attune the chakras; since they are a soft white, they help bring soft, healing energy during meditation.
In addition to their metaphysical properties, pearls are believed to eliminate emotional imbalances. By supposedly helping people
master the heart chakra, they aid stomach, spleen, intestinal tract and ulcer problems. They also enjoy a long and varied list of
"uses." These include cures for eye ailments, heart trouble, fever, bleeding, poisoning and indigestion. Because of pearls' high
calcium content, some of these have seen actual clinical benefit (e.g. indigestion). A pearl water tonic can be made to increase
vitality, relieve eyestrain and soothe burning urination: Place several small pearls in water overnight and drink the following day.
This tonic is a natural antacid and anti-inflammatory. Pearls are found in Japan, China, Tahiti, Ceylon, Scotland, Norway, Australia,
Indonesia, the Philippines, the U.S.A., Mexico and Burma. The finest oriental pearls are found in the Persian Gulf.
Pearls are less durable than most gems, and are sensitive to acids, dryness and extreme humidity. Therefore, they should be
cared for accordingly:
If you wear cosmetics, perfume or hair spray, apply them before putting on your pearl jewelry.
When taking off your pearls, wipe them with a dry, lint-free cloth. The calcium carbonate in pearls dissolves in human sweat or oil
from the skin, and this will diminish the pearls' luster.
Be sure they don't get exposed for a long time to direct sunlight, especially ultraviolet rays; the protein in pearls becomes yellow
under sunlight.
If your pearls need cleaning, do so with warm soapy water (never an ultrasonic cleaner), taking care not to get water into the drill
hole as the pearl may discolor.
Dry your pearls flat on an absorbent, soft (and preferably lint-free) towel.
Store them away from contact with metals or harder stones that might damage them. Also, don't store them in plastic, as it will seal
out air, thereby accelerating deterioration.
But don't just leave them in a drawer — wear them at least once a month, as the mild humidity from your skin is good for them.
Labradorite
aka Black Moonstone, Falcon's Eye
Labradorite is the "umbrella" name for a sodium-rich variety of plagioclase feldspar found in igneous or metamorphic rocks. When
light hits labradorite from a particular direction, it can display striking rainbow-colored reflections (violet, blue, green, yellow, orange
and red) known as labradorescence or schiller. Labradorite has been described as looking like gasoline lying on water or the
delicate wings of a tropical butterfly. It is in the same family as moonstone. Stones with a light green-gray base and moderate
schiller are known simply as labradorite. The high-quality type of labradorite mined in Finland is called spectrolite, which has a dark
or black base and a wide spectrum of colors.
Labradorite officially was discovered on St. Paul Island in Labrador, Canada, in 1770. However, pieces of the gemstone also have
been found among artifacts of the Native Americans in Maine. During the 18th century, labradorite became one of the stones
frequently used in jewelry in France and England.
Labradorite is said to detoxify the body and slow the aging process. It also is believed to elevate consciousness and protect a
person's aura, helping to keep the aura clear, balanced, protected and free from energy leaks. Many say the stone heals mental
confusion and indecision. Labradorite is found in Labrador (Canada), Madagascar, the Ukraine, Australia, Mexico, Norway and the
U.S.A.
Tourmaline
Tourmaline is a complex crystalline silicate containing aluminum, boron and other elements. Its name is derived from the Sinhalese (Sri
Lanka) word tura mali, meaning "stone of mixed colors." Indeed, tourmaline appears in blue, yellow, pink, red, black, green and clear.   
Tourmalated quartz contains black tourmaline inclusions and green tourmalated quartz contains green inclusions. Each color of
tourmaline is given its own name in the gem world, making tourmaline more a group of minerals than a single type. These include
rubellite (pink to red), indicolite (blue), schorl (black), dravite (brown) and achroite (colorless).
Tourmaline boasts a number of rather amazing physical characteristics. For one, it is piezoelectric; this means heating, rubbing or
pressurizing the crystal gives it an electric charge, attracting small objects such as hair or small pieces of paper. Because of this
property, tourmaline has been employed in depth-sounding devices and other tools that detect and measure variations in pressure. It
also is pleochroic, looking darker from some angles than from others. As with all gems, protect tourmaline from scratches and sharp
blows, and avoid drastic temperature changes. Do not clean tourmaline in a home ultrasonic cleaner.
Tourmaline has been used as a gem for more than 2,000 years. An ancient Egyptian legend attempts to explain the beautiful array of
colors in this gemstone: On the long journey from the middle of the earth up toward the sun, the tourmaline traveled along a rainbow. On
the way, it collected all the colors of the rainbow, which is why it came to be known as "the rainbow gemstone." In medieval times,
tourmaline was thought to heal physical and mental disorders, and prevent death.
Today, tourmaline is said to dispel fear, negativity and grief. Many say tourmaline induces a tranquil sleep, and according to legend, it
protects the wearer against many dangers and misfortunes. It also is believed to calm nerves, regulate hormones and fight genetic
disorders. Tourmaline is mined around the world but has important occurrences in Brazil, Sri Lanka and southern Africa. Others include
Pakistan, Afghanistan, the U.S.A. (Maine and Utah), Mexico and Myanmar (formerly Burma).
Sterling silver
sometimes stamped .925, is an alloy of 92.5% silver, and 7.5% copper. It is a soft, easy to work with metal, which can be antiqued
to a dark black or given a high polish.
Karen Hill Tribe Silver
Karen Silver is truly original. Unlike mass-produced silver, every aspect of this product is genuinely handmade,
even the chisel used to stamp the pieces are etched by hand.
E c l e c t i c   J   D e s i g n s

unique ~ extraordinary ~ wearable art